United States History I. Introduction United States History, story of how the republic developed from colonial beginnings in the 16th century, when the first European explorers arrived, until modern times. As the nation developed, it expanded westward from small settlements along the Atlantic Coast, eventually including all the territory between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans across the middle of the North American continent, as well as two noncontiguous states and a number of territories. At the same time, the population and the economy of the United States grew and changed dramatically.
The Separation of Church and State in the United States the Peace and welfare of Society is preserved, and the Ends of both are answered. By mixing them together, feuds, animosities and persecutions have been raised, which have deluged the World in Blood, Religion in the United States of America. United States History I. Introduction United States History, story of how the republic developed from colonial beginnings in the 16th century, when the first European explorers arrived, until modern times. Puritan laws and character in colonial New England. Part of an e-text on the history of the United States.
Second Great Awakening Methodist camp meeting During the Second Great AwakeningProtestantism grew and took root in new areas, along with new Protestant denominations such as Adventismthe Restoration Movementand groups such as Mormonism.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Bishop Francis Asbury led the American Methodist movement as one of the most prominent religious leaders of the young republic. Traveling throughout the eastern seaboard, Methodism grew quickly under Asbury's leadership into one of the nation's largest and most influential denominations.
The principal innovation produced by the revivals was the camp meeting. The revivals were organized by Presbyterian ministers who modeled them after the extended outdoor communion seasonsused by the Presbyterian Church in Scotland, which frequently produced emotional, demonstrative displays of religious conviction.
In Kentucky, the pioneers loaded their families and provisions into their wagons and drove to the Presbyterian meetings, where they pitched tents and settled in for several days.
When assembled in a field or at the edge of a forest for a prolonged religious meeting, the participants transformed the site into a camp meeting. The religious revivals that swept the Kentucky camp meetings were so intense and created such gusts of emotion that their original sponsors, the Presbyterians, soon repudiated them.
The Methodists, however, adopted and eventually domesticated camp meetings and introduced them into the eastern United States, where for decades they were one of the evangelical signatures of the denomination.
Separation of church and state[ edit ] In Octobermembers of the Danbury Baptists Associations wrote a letter to the new president-elect Thomas Jefferson. Baptists, being a minority in Connecticut, were still required to pay fees to support the Congregationalist majority.
The Baptists found this intolerable. The Baptists, well aware of Jefferson's own unorthodox beliefs, sought him as an ally in making all religious expression a fundamental human right and not a matter of government largesse. In his January 1, reply to the Danbury Baptist Association Jefferson summed up the First Amendment's original intent, and used for the first time anywhere a now-familiar phrase in today's political and judicial circles: The first time the U.
Supreme Court cited that phrase from Jefferson was in76 years later. African American churches[ edit ] Main article: Black church "Wade in the water. The Christianity of the black population was grounded in evangelicalism. The Second Great Awakening has been called the "central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity.
However, many were disappointed at the treatment they received from their fellow believers and at the backsliding in the commitment to abolish slavery that many white Baptists and Methodists had advocated immediately after the American Revolution.
When their discontent could not be contained, forceful black leaders followed what was becoming an American habit—they formed new denominations. InRichard Allen and his colleagues in Philadelphia broke away from the Methodist Church and in founded the African Methodist Episcopal AME Churchwhich, along with independent black Baptist congregations, flourished as the century progressed.
Abolitionism The first American movement to abolish slavery came in the spring of when German and Dutch Quakers of Mennonitedescent in Germantown, Pennsylvania now part of Philadelphia wrote a two-page condemnation of the practice and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church, the Society of Friends.
Though the Quaker establishment took no immediate action, the Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slaverywas an unusually early, clear and forceful argument against slavery and initiated the process of banning slavery in the Society of Friends and Pennsylvania The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was the first American abolition society, formed 14 Aprilin Philadelphiaprimarily by Quakers who had strong religious objections to slavery.
After the American Revolutionary WarQuaker and Moravian advocates helped persuade numerous slaveholders in the Upper South to free their slaves. The following year Weld encouraged a group of students at Lane Theological Seminary to form an anti-slavery society.
After the president, Lyman Beecherattempted to suppress it, the students moved to Oberlin College. Due to the students' anti-slavery position, Oberlin soon became one of the most liberal colleges and accepted African American students.
Along with Garrison, were Northcutt and Collins as proponents of immediate abolition. These two ardent abolitionists felt very strongly that it could not wait and that action needed to be taken right away.
After "abolition" usually referred to positions like Garrison's; it was largely an ideological movement led by about people, including free blacks and people of color, many of whom, such as Frederick Douglassand Robert Purvis and James Forten in Philadelphia, played prominent leadership roles.
Abolitionism had a strong religious base including Quakers, and people converted by the revivalist fervor of the Second Great Awakeningled by Charles Finney in the North in the s. Belief in abolition contributed to the breaking away of some small denominations, such as the Free Methodist Church.
The well-established colleges, such as HarvardYale and Princetongenerally opposed abolition,[ citation needed ] although the movement did attract such figures as Yale president Noah Porter and Harvard president Thomas Hill. One historian observed that ritualist churches separated themselves from heretics rather than sinners; he observed that Episcopalians and Lutherans also accommodated themselves to slavery.
Indeed, one southern Episcopal bishop was a Confederate general. There were more reasons than religious tradition, however, as the Anglican Church had been the established church in the South during the colonial period. It was linked to the traditions of landed gentry and the wealthier and educated planter classes, and the Southern traditions longer than any other church.
In addition, while the Protestant missionaries of the Great Awakening initially opposed slavery in the South, by the early decades of the 19th century, Baptist and Methodist preachers in the South had come to an accommodation with it in order to evangelize with farmers and artisans.The role of Massachusetts Bay Colony in the history of the United States of America.
According to Thomas Fuller in his Church History, While the Puritans were united in their goal of furthering the English Reformation, The pinnacle of achievement for children in Puritan society, however, occurred with the conversion process. The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain, and the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America. Puritan Life. As minister of Boston's Old North Church, Cotton Mather was a popular voice in Puritan New England.
His involvement in the witch trials of the s would bring him even more notoriety. the Scarlet Letter was a real form of punishment in Puritan society.
In the Puritan north a religious message leaps out from almost every page of the early criminal codes. Sin, of course, existed in the eyes of the beholders, and the eyes were everywhere—as you might expect in small, inbred communities.
In Crime and Punishment in American History, Friedman writes: In the eighteenth century, the death. Society of Friends: Society of Friends, Christian group that arose in midth-century England, dedicated to living in accordance with the “Inward Light,” or direct inward apprehension of God, without creeds, clergy, or other ecclesiastical forms.
As most powerfully .