It was published in Vol 32, no.
At the other end of the spectrum, small populations such as those of the EnetsKetand Yukaghir are highly vulnerable to absorption by surrounding peoples, as well as to the effects of epidemicsalthough their resistance to disease was greater than among the indigenous peoples of the New World when exposed to European contact.
Thus the Enets, who have all but disappeared, were some 3, strong at the beginning of the 17th century, but most were subsequently absorbed by the NenetsSelkupand Dolgan. Likewise, the Yukaghir numbered about 5, in the s but were gradually reduced in number to a mere in Smallpox, measles, and syphilis were largely responsible for the decline, as were wars with the Chukchi and economic destitution brought on by involvement in the fur trade, the introduction of firearms, and the resulting depletion of wild animal resources.
Indigenous numbers in the Eurasian north are continuing to increase but at a rate much slower than in northern North America. Between and the average increase was about 15 percent, compared with the 40 percent increase over the same period in the Inuit population of Canada.
The reasons for this contrast are not clear, but it may be due to higher rates of assimilation among indigenous peoples in Russia. At that time much of northern Siberia consisted of arid steppe-tundra, an environment favourable to herds of large grazing animals, such as the now-extinct mammoth and woolly rhinoceros as well as the reindeer.
The earliest settlers were specialized hunters of these rich game resources, and their descendants, having spread as far as the northeastern tip of Siberia, became the first humans to cross into North America, perhaps about 13, years ago.
Some investigators, however, hold that modern humans had migrated as far as present-day Alaska by 30, years ago. Several further waves of migration followed, in both directions.
A general climatic warming about 11, years ago, marking the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene Epochled to the expansion of the taiga, or boreal forest, which was flanked to the north by a narrow strip of swampy tundra.
Within the taiga zone, hunting cultures developed with an emphasis on small game procurement and fishing, whereas, around the northeastern coasts, warm sea currents favoured the exploitation of marine mammals. Meanwhile, agricultural economies involving the use of domestic animals were expanding from their centres of origin into Southwest and Central Asia.
It was this expansion that eventually led to the domestication of the horse and, in the 1st millennium bc, to the rise of mobile, equestrian pastoralism in the Central Asian steppes. Moving north into the Siberian taiga, these pastoralists were probably the first to domesticate the reindeer.
They were the ancestors of the present Samoyedic- and Tungusic-speaking peoples. With their gradual dispersion northward, local hunting and fishing cultures were progressively absorbed.
This process of absorption was still apparent in recent times in the spread of Evenk and Even pastoralism into Yukaghir country, though it was somewhat overtaken by the subsequent northward expansion of the Sakha. Where the domestic reindeer appeared on the northern margin of the taiga, as among the tundra Nenets and Chukchi, it eventually led to the emergence of full-blown pastoralism.
The same occurred in Lapland, though the initial domestication of the reindeer by the Sami also owed something to the influence of Finnish and Scandinavian peasants.
West of the Ural Mountainscontacts between European settlers and indigenous hunters and fishermen date back more than 1, years. Throughout the Middle Ages, trading and raiding forays were made into Sami country—later in the name of the Danish, Swedish, and Russian crowns—to tap the rich reserves of furs and foodstuffs.
From roughly the 16th century, this commercial penetration was followed by a concerted movement of agricultural colonization, as rival kingdoms competed for control over the territory of Lapland. Some Sami found themselves obliged to pay taxes to representatives of three different states.
Farther east, Russian merchant seafarers had colonized the White Sea coasts by the 9th century, and by the 11th century they had reached the mouth of the Ob River.
A parallel movement overland, initially out of Novgorod, was given added impetus by the demand for fur. Cossacks and fur traders had penetrated the region east of the Urals by the 16th century and proceeded to advance across the entire breadth of Siberia, from the Urals to the Pacific coast, in the space of 60 years, — Kamchatka was annexed in In what is now the Chukchi region of the Russian Far East, however, the Russians encountered fierce resistance: Having established its presence across Siberia, Russia could maintain control without much difficulty, despite the vast expanse of territory and sparse immigrant population, for it did not have to contend with any competing external threat.
During the 20th century the human settlement of Arctic and subarctic Eurasia has been completely transformed. The development of industrial fishing, forestry, mining, oil and natural gas exploration, and military installations, along with the necessary transport, communication, and administrative infrastructurehas required the introduction of a large immigrant population.
In Siberia many of these immigrants were originally brought in under constraint from other parts of the former Soviet Unionbut they or their descendants have since remained. These nonnative groups form a predominantly urban population, inhabiting the new towns around industrial centres.
The indigenous populations, by contrast, continue to live primarily in the rural areas. Traditional culture With the exception of the Pacific coast, the Eurasian Arctic and subarctic correspond fairly precisely with the distribution of the reindeer. More than any other factor, the reindeer and its domestication lend some cultural unity to the region as a whole, as well as distinguish the region from the North American Arctic and subarctic, where the reindeer or caribou remains wild.
The two types of reindeer husbandry are defined by the two predominant ecosystems, the taiga and the tundra.Nunavut Image 44 From Nunavut Images Collection: Transportation For generations the Inuit people of Nunavut lived a traditional life in the Arctic, moving from one place to another with the seasons, to hunt caribou, muskox and seal, or fish for char and whitefish.
Kinship Systems of the Inuit Culture The Inuit people live in the harsh conditions of the Arctic region of North America.
Once referred to commonly as “Eskimos,” Inuit’s are spread out in different regions across the Arctic. Arctic - The people: The Arctic, or circumpolar, peoples are the indigenous inhabitants of the northernmost regions of the world. For the most part, they live beyond the climatic limits of agriculture, drawing a subsistence from hunting, trapping, and fishing or from pastoralism.
Thus climatic gradients, rather than simple latitude, determine the effective boundaries of the circumpolar region. Nunavut Image 44 From Nunavut Images Collection: Transportation For generations the Inuit people of Nunavut lived a traditional life in the Arctic, moving from one place to another with the seasons, to hunt caribou, muskox and seal, or fish for char and whitefish.
History >> Native Americans for Kids The Inuit people live in the far northern areas of Alaska, Canada, Siberia, and Greenland. They originally made their home . Arctic - The people: The Arctic, or circumpolar, peoples are the indigenous inhabitants of the northernmost regions of the world.
For the most part, they live beyond the climatic limits of agriculture, drawing a subsistence from hunting, trapping, and fishing or from pastoralism.