National Still Life Award seeks to highlight the diversity and vitality of still life in Australian contemporary art practice, broadening the interpretation of this enduring genre.
Etymology[ edit ] The Late Latin adjective modernusa derivation from the adverb modo "presently, just now", is attested from the 5th century, at first in the context of distinguishing the Christian era from the pagan era.
In the 6th century, Cassiodorus appears to have been the first writer to use modernus "modern" regularly to refer to his own age O'Donnelln9.
The terms antiquus and modernus were used in a chronological sense in the Carolingian era. For example, a magister modernus referred to a contemporary scholar, as opposed to old authorities such as Benedict of Nursia. In early medieval usage, modernus referred to authorities younger than pagan antiquity and the early church fathers, but not necessarily to the present day, and could include authors several centuries old, from about the time of Bedai.
The Latin adjective was adopted in Middle Frenchas moderne, by the 15th century, and hence, in the early Tudor periodinto Early Modern English.
The early modern word meant "now existing", or "pertaining to the present times", not necessarily with a positive connotation. Shakespeare uses modern in the sense of "every-day, ordinary, commonplace".
The term modernityfirst coined in the s, in this context assumed the implication of a historical epoch following the Renaissance, in which the achievements of antiquity were surpassed Delanty Phases[ edit ] Modernity has been associated with cultural and intellectual movements of — and extending to the s or later Toulmin3—5.
According to Marshall Berman16—17modernity is periodized into three conventional phases dubbed "Early," "Classical," and "Late," respectively, by Peter Osborne There was a great shift into modernization in the name of industrial capitalism.
Finally in the third phase, modernist arts and individual creativity marked the beginning of a new modernist age as it combats oppressive politics, economics as well as other social forces including mass media Laughey He also proposed that an aim of politics is to control one's own chance or fortune, and that relying upon providence actually leads to evil.
Machiavelli argued, for example, that violent divisions within political communities are unavoidable, but can also be a source of strength which lawmakers and leaders should account for and even encourage in some ways Strauss Machiavelli's recommendations were sometimes influential upon kings and princes, but eventually came to be seen as favoring free republics over monarchies Rahe1.
Machiavelli in turn influenced Francis Bacon Kenningtonchapt. Important modern political doctrines which stem from the new Machiavellian realism include Mandeville 's influential proposal that "Private Vices by the dextrous Management of a skilful Politician may be turned into Publick Benefits" the last sentence of his Fable of the Beesand also the doctrine of a constitutional " separation of powers " in government, first clearly proposed by Montesquieu.
Both these principles are enshrined within the constitutions of most modern democracies. It has been observed that while Machiavelli's realism saw a value to war and political violence, his lasting influence has been "tamed" so that useful conflict was deliberately converted as much as possible to formalized political struggles and the economic "conflict" encouraged between free, private enterprises Rahechapt.
Starting with Thomas Hobbesattempts were made to use the methods of the new modern physical sciences, as proposed by Bacon and Descartesapplied to humanity and politics Berns Notable attempts to improve upon the methodological approach of Hobbes include those of John Locke GoldwinSpinoza RosenGiambattista Vicoxliand Rousseaupart 1.
Modernist republicanism openly influenced the foundation of republics during the Dutch Revolt — Bock, Skinner, and Virolichapt. Orwin and Tarcovchapt. A second phase of modernist political thinking begins with Rousseau, who questioned the natural rationality and sociality of humanity and proposed that human nature was much more malleable than had been previously thought.
By this logic, what makes a good political system or a good man is completely dependent upon the chance path a whole people has taken over history. This thought influenced the political and aesthetic thinking of Immanuel KantEdmund Burke and others and led to a critical review of modernist politics.
On the conservative side, Burke argued that this understanding encouraged caution and avoidance of radical change. However more ambitious movements also developed from this insight into human cultureinitially Romanticism and Historicismand eventually both the Communism of Karl Marxand the modern forms of nationalism inspired by the French Revolutionincluding, in one extreme, the German Nazi movement Orwin and Tarcovchapt.
On the other hand, the notion of modernity has been contested also due to its Euro-centric underpinnings. This is further aggravated by the re-emergence of non-Western powers.
Yet, the contestations about modernity are also linked with Western notions of democracy, social discipline, and development Regilme Cover of the original German edition of Max Weber 's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism In sociologya discipline that arose in direct response to the social problems of "modernity" Harriss, the term most generally refers to the social conditions, processes, and discourses consequent to the Age of Enlightenment.
In the most basic terms, Anthony Giddens describes modernity as Portrayed in more detail, it is associated with 1 a certain set of attitudes towards the world, the idea of the world as open to transformation, by human intervention; 2 a complex of economic institutions, especially industrial production and a market economy; 3 a certain range of political institutions, including the nation-state and mass democracy.
Largely as a result of these characteristics, modernity is vastly more dynamic than any previous type of social order. It is a society—more technically, a complex of institutions —which, unlike any preceding culture, lives in the future, rather than the past Giddens Other writers have criticized such definitions as just being a listing of factors.
They argue that modernity, contingently understood as marked by an ontological formation in dominance, needs to be defined much more fundamentally in terms of different ways of being.Living and Sustaining a Creative Life: Essays by 40 Working Artists [Sharon Louden] on skybox2008.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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